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Saw Palmetto - GN Laboratories

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8026

  • Content: 120 Capsules
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GN Saw Palmetto 600mg - Ameliorates the negative side effects of high DHT (dihydrotestosterone), estrogen and progesterone levels – equally suited for using and non-using athletes!

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Ameliorates the negative side effects of high DHT (dihydrotestosterone), estrogen and progesterone levels – equally suited for using and non-using athletes!

 

Product highlights:

  • 600mg Saw Palmetto extract per cap
  • Reduces the conversion of testosterone to DHT
  • Increases the amount of testosterone in the blood
  • Ameliorates androgen-related alopecia in men
  • Helps with oily skin and acne
  • Promotes prostate health and alleviates the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia
  • Minimizes potential estrogenic side effects of anabolic steroids and prohormones
  • Acts directly on the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estrogen
  • Reduces the sensitivity to estrogen and progesterone directly at the receptor level

 

GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract is a totally natural and non-hazardous dietary supplement. Contrary to common believe, its usefulness is not restricted to users of anabolic steroids and prohomones, but can be used by anyone who suffers from increased levels of serum DHT.
Oily skin, acne, androgen-related allopecia or benign prostate hyperplasia? If you suffer from any, or all of these conditions or simply want to make sure to avoid them in the future, GN Laboratories‘ Saw Palmetto Extract can help.
In fact, Saw Palmetto can do even more: It can increase your testosterone levels and thus promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In combination with its ability to keep estrogen and progesterone levels at bay, this will allow for lean mass gains without water retention or fat gain, a bloated look, elevated blood pressure or even gynecomastia (aka “bitch tits”). And above all, it works equally well for using and non-using athletes, i.e. irrespective if your estrogen and progesterone levels got out of whack due to the influence of exogenous or endogenous steroids.
Many naturopaths use Saw Palmetto as a libido enhancer with their clients. Pertinent studies may be rare, but the sheer number of users who swear by the extract of the fruits of Serenoa repens speaks for itself. Sounds interesting? Well, there is more, just keep on reading and learn what GN Laboratories’ high potency Saw Palmetto Extract can do for you.

 

What is Saw Palmetto Extract

Saw Palmetto is extracted from the fruit of Serenoa repens, a small plant from the palm family that is native to Florida and climatically similar regions. Serenoa repens has large leaves and carries dark red fruits that have about half the size of an olive. They are the raw material the product is made of.
Saw Palmetto extracts are particularly rich in phytosterols. These fatty acids are pretty rare and occur only in certain types of fruits. They are the actual active ingredients of GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract and the reason why respective extracts have been used for medical purposes ever since Mayan times.
The Maya used Saw Palmetto as a tonic and the Seminoles appreciated its mucolytic and antiseptic effects. The native Americans also used the extract to tread gonadal atrophy, impotence, inflammatory prostate conditions, loss of libido, stunted growth of the female breast, lactation problems, menstrual disturbances, to stimulate metabolism and increase appetite.
For over 200 years, saw Palmetto has also been one of the staple supplements in modern alternative medicine. Many of these traditional uses have meanwhile been extensively researched and the corresponding beneficial effects have been linked directly to the effects the extracts have on the human endocrine system (hormonal control).
Both, the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, as well as the treatment of androgen-related alopecia, for example, belong to these canonical areas of application; and as far as the former, i.e. the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia is concerned, Saw Palmetto extract is by far the herbal medicine with the most popular remedy with scientific evidence to back up it’s efficacy and safety (1,2).

 

How exactly does GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract Work?

The primary mechanism behind the previously cited health benefits is Saw Palmetto’s well-established ability to block the conversion of testosterone to DHT by an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase (5, 6, 7, 9). What is particularly interesting about Saw Palmetto compared to other 5-ar inhibitors, is the fact that our Saw Palmetto Extract will inhibit both isoforms of this enzyme – Type I and Type II. This is something even pharmacological 5-alpha reductase inhibitors such as Finasterid (the active ingredient in medications such as Proscar and Propecia) is not capable of.
The 5-alpha reductase enzyme will attach to the testosterone molecules in your body and catalyze their conversion to DHT. Compared to testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has a 3x-5x higher androgen activity. DHT is thus responsible for the majority of the potentially detrimental effects of androgens on your body. Hereditary androgen-related alopecia, prostate hyperplasia, oily skin and acne, are probably the most common of these side effects.
Users of anabolic steroids will be familiar with these side effects. However, the very same effects can also occur in individuals who do not abuse exogenous steroids. If you are genetically susceptible to its effects, even minor increases in DHT will have negative impacts on the physiology of your sebaceous glands, the hair follicles on your scalp, or the prostate.
By directly inhibiting the enzymatic conversion of testosterone to DHT, GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract can reduce if not completely abolish any unwanted side effects of high DHT. Interestingly, its effects are not restricted to testosterone, only. Saw Palmetto will rather inhibit the conversion of all anabolic steroids that can be converted to DHT.
Its ability to reduce the binding affinity of DHT to its receptors, adds another layer to the androgen protective effects of GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract. This is particularly interesting for people who use performance enhancing agents that may not be converted to DHT, but do actually have a pretty high affinity to directly bind to the androgen receptor. In these cases, a classic 5-alpha reductase inhibitor such as Finasterid or Dutasterid would not be useful, because the effect Saw Palmetto exerts on the binding capacity of the androgen receptors is not directly related to the inhibition of the enzymatic reaction and thus not present with Proscar, Propecia & Co.
A common question we get is whether it is not possible that the reduced androgen activity would lead to a reduction in skeletal muscle anabolism. In view of the fact that testosterone does work its anabolic magic by interacting with the androgen receptors this is unquestionably a reasonable concern. With DHT being 3-5x more androgenic it would after all stand to reason that it was a 3-5x more potent muscle builder, as well. In practice, it is however the exact other way around.
The reason why DHT is not as good of a muscle builder is testosterone is the presence of another enzyme that goes by the cryptic name 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the muscle tissue. This enzyme will facilitate the immediate conversion of DHT to one out of several hormonally inactive metabolites. Since the latter cannot bind to and activate the androgen receptors, they are also unable to promote lean mass gains.
The decreased conversion of testosterone to DHT in response to the consumption of GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract, on the other hand, will increase the levels of testosterone at the expense of DHT and will thus effectively boost skeletal muscle anabolism.
Next to its effects on 5-alpha reductase and DHT, GN Laboratories‘ Saw Palmetto Extract has a couple of additional interesting properties. In clinical trials, scientists observed that Saw Palmetto will also block the progesterone and estrogen receptors. In that it works like a SERM - a selective estrogen receptor modulator such as Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) or Clomifen (Chlomid). While these drugs have originally been developed to treat breast cancer, both are used by steroid users to ameliorate estrogen related side effects. In that, the mechanism of action is actually pretty straight forward: GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto extract will simply bind to the estrogen or progesterone receptor, but instead of activating it, it blocks other molecules, namely estrogen and progesterone from binding.
Its SERM-like effects make GN Laboratories’ the perfect choice for using and non-using athletes to minimize their risk of developing estrogen related side effects such as the growth of male breast tissue (gynecomastia), water retention that will make your muscle look soft, blood pressure issues and an increase in body fat. Even more so than for DHT, side effects of high estrogen levels can occur even if you are not (ab-)using performance enhancing drugs. Pubertal gynecomastia, for example, is one of the most common, yet often transient side effects of naturally high estrogen levels.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators are also used after the cessation of an androgen or prohormone cycle. In these situations they will promote the re-establishment of normal natural testosterone levels by inhibiting the negative feedback estrogen exerts on the luteinizing hormone production in the brain and the corresponding reduction in testicular teststosterone production.
In this context, it is however important to note that GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto extract will – just like any other synthetic 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, not work from one day to the next. It will take 2-3 months of continuous usage before the side effects of previously elevated DHT levels are going to disappear – and that despite the fact that the effects on the alpha-reductase levels are immediate. Against that background it would be counterproductive to stop taking the product after only four weeks simply because your hair isn’t regrowing yet and your skin still looks oily. You know the good old saying “Haste Makes Waste”, don’t you?

 

Who is going to benefit from GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract

Despite the fact that anabolic steroid users are supposedly the group that will see the greatest benefits, Saw Palmetto can be used by anyone suffering from androgen-related health issues ranging from Acne, to the loss of scalp, benign prostate hyperplasia and related problems from high estrogen and/or progesterone levels (gynecomastia, high blood pressure, water retention, increased body fat).
GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto can also be used during post-cycle therapy to block the estrogenic negative feedback and restore a normal testisticular testosterone production. .
Even people with a genetic precipitation for alopecia and / or severe acne can benefit, as long as these symptoms are brought about by an overproduction of or increased sensitivity to DHT.
In view of the association between age and the occurrence of benign prostate hyperplasia, every man in his early forties (or older) will benefit from the ingestion of Saw Palmetto. In this regard it’s also worth mentioning that GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto extract does not mess with the PSA (prostate specific antigen) values your Dr. will use as a diagnostic tool to assess your risk of developing prostate cancer.

 

The GN Laboratories Quality Guarantee

We use only the purest, highest grade ingredients the market has to offer. To ensure the constant quality of all our products, we conduct regular laboratory tests to ensure the purity and quality of all ingredients.

 

Warnings:

Since GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto Extract exerts both direct, as well as indirect effects on the endocrine system, it must not be used by pregnant and nursing women. GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto decreases clotting times. Supplementation with Saw Palmetto must therefore be seized at least 2 weeks before surgery. It is of paramount importance to discuss the usage and potential interactions with other medications - esp. anti-coagulants, but also common medications such as Aspirin, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Naproxen - with your medical practitioner before you start using the product. Since GN Laboratories Saw Palmetto Extract may reduce the effects of estrogen and progesterone in your body, it will hamper the effect of hormonal contraceptives and estrogen preparations that are prescribed to ameliorate the symptoms of menopause. Women who use oral contraceptives are thus strongly advised to resort to alternative means of contraception, whenever they are using GN Laboratories’ Saw Palmetto extract.

 

References

  1. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Devane CL, et al. (December 2003). "Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 74 (6): 536–42.
  2. Wilt T, Ishani A, Mac Donald R (2002). "Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia". In Tacklind, James. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3)
  3. Wadsworth TL, Worstell TR, Greenberg NM, Roselli CE (May 2007). "Effects of dietary saw palmetto on the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP)". The Prostate 67 (6): 661–73.
  4. Scholtysek C, Krukiewicz AA, Alonso JL, Sharma KP, Sharma PC, Goldmann WH (February 2009). "Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 379 (3): 795–8.
  5. Anderson ML (2005). "A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro". Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy 5 (1): 17–26
  6. Habib FK, Ross M, Ho CK, et al. Serenoa repens (Permixon) inhibits the 5alpha-reductase activity of human prostate cancer cell lines without interfering with PSA expression. Int J Cancer 2005;114:190-4.
  7. Scaglione F, Lucini V, Pannacci M, Caronno A, Leone C (2008). "Comparison of the potency of different brands of Serenoa repens extract on 5alpha-reductase types I and II in prostatic co-cultured epithelial and fibroblast cells". Pharmacology 82 (4): 270–5
  8. Abe M, Ito Y, Oyunzul L, Oki-Fujino T, Yamada S (April 2009). "Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 32 (4): 646–50.

Bewertungen

  • Titel:Ich denke es wirkt.
    Generell scheint bei GN Produkten drinnen zu sein, was draufsteht. Auch das Gaba ist sehr gut und wirkt bestens.
    Nahm und nehme keine Steroide,
    doch habe ich in meinem Alter und da ich sehr viel trinke ( kein Alkohol ) doch schon leichte Probleme mit der Prostata. Hilft sehr gut.
Nur registrierte Benutzer können bewerten.

Take three (3) capsules daily after meal.

Saw Palmetto

Die Sägepalme oder Sägepalmfrucht, mit botanischem Namen Serenoa repens, wird in der allgemeinen Öffentlichkeit hauptsächlich als Behandlungsmittel für die gutartige Prostata-Hyperplasie oder BPH vermarktet. In den USA wird diese Gattung Serenoa Repens genannt. In anderen Teilen der Welt kennt man sie als Sabal Serrulatum, Sabal Serulata, Sabalis Serulata, Sabalis Serulatae, Serenoa Serrulata, Serenoa Serrulatae und unter vielen anderen Synonymen. Die Sägepalme, der allgemein gebräuchliche Name, wird weltweit u.a. auch Sabal, Sabal Fructus, Sabalfrucht, Fructus Serenoae, oder Saw Palmetto genannt. Für unsere Webseitenzwecke gebrauchen wir der Einfachheit halber den Namen Sägepalme und die Gattungsbezeichnung Serenoa Repens.

Die Vorzüge der Sägepalme können bis in das frühe 18. Jahrhundert zurückverfolgt werden, als die Ureinwohner der Halbinsel Floridas hauptsächlich von den Eigenschaften dieser Frucht abhingen. Die Früchte wurden durch die Indianer als Mittel gegen Hodenathrophie, Impotenz, Entzündung der Prostata, mangelnden Geschlechtstrieb des Mannes und als Allzweckmittel zur Anregung der Körperfunktionen verwendet. Andere historische Anwendungsgebiete umfassen Behandlungen bei Unfruchtbarkeit der Frau, unterentwickelten Brüsten, überhöhter Milchproduktion, schmerzhafter Menstruation und die Verwendung als Mittel gegen Entzündungen, als Appetitanreger und als Tonik und Schleimlöser im Besonderen für die Bronchialwege. Es wurde außerdem als Potenzmittel für Männer und Frauen vermarktet und als "Sexpille der Neunziger" bezeichnet.
Heutzutage wird das Produkt hauptsächlich in der Behandlung von Fällen, die im Zusammenhang mit BPH (die nicht-bösartige Vergrößerung der Prostata) stehen, verwendet. Bei der Entwicklung von BPH spielen verschiedene Faktoren eine Rolle: erstens sind funktionale Hoden und eine kritische Androgenmenge für die Entstehung von BHP Voraussetzung. Zweitens bewirkt eine Veränderung des prostalen Androgenstoffwechsels die Ansammlung von Dihydrotestosteron (DHT), und drittens eine Erhöhung des Verhältnisses von Plasmaöstrogenen zu Androgenen. Neueste klinische Forschungen scheinen zu zeigen, dass sich das Sägepalmextrakt positiv bei BHP auswirkt. Es wird berichtet, dass seine Aktionsmechanismen bei der Behandlung von BHP die Umwandlung von Testosteron zu DHT verhindert, der Substanz, die als Ursache für die Vergrößerung der Prostata angesehen wird. Zusätzlich hemmt das Sägepalmextrakt die Anbindung von DHT an Rezeptoren und unterbindet somit seine Wirkung. Es wurde ebenfalls nachgewiesen, dass es eine Hemmwirkung sowohl bei Androgen- als auch bei Östrogenkernrezeptoren hat. Dieses wird ohne Auswirkung auf die Menge von Testosteronen, follikelstimulierender Hormone oder luteinierender Hormone erreicht. Als wichtigste Eigenschaft aber ist zu bemerken, daß die Sägepalmfrucht keine Auswirkungen auf PSA-Mengen hat, sodaß PSA-Tests zur Entdeckung von Krebszellen nicht verfälscht werden.


Bedarf im Sport

Die Substanz ist interessant für viele Sportler, die anabole Steroide oder Prohormone einsetzen. Hier kommt es häufig zu einem Anstieg des Androgenspiegels im Körper mit daraus resultierendem erhöhten DHT-Spiegel. Manche Steroide wirken auch direkt an den DHT-Rezeptoren in der Haut und an den Haarfollikeln und können dort theoretisch durch Saw Palmetto gehemmt werden. Selbst Natural-Athleten könnten von einer Nahrungsergänzung mit Saw Palmetto profitieren, wenn sie erblich bedingten Haarausfall oder einer starken Talgproduktion der Haut bzw. Aknebildung entgegen wirken wollen.

Ebenso werden durch Saw Palmetto die Progesteronrezeptoren blockiert (Progesteron kann ebenso wie Östrogen zu einer Wasserspeicherung und Gynäkomastie führen). Saw Palmetto ist auch bei diesen Steroid-Nebenwirkungen ein wirksames Mittel.
Viele Sportles sind auch überzeugt das Saw Palmetto bei ihnen eine positive auswirkung auf Akneprobleme und Haarausfall hat.
Bis sich erste positive Effekte zeigen, muss Saw Palmetto meist 2-3 Monate eingenommen werden. Saw Palmetto ist nicht toxisch und besitzt auch in höheren Dosierungen über einen längeren Zeitraum eingenommen keine nennenswerten Nebenwirkungen. Die empfohlene Dosis liegt bei 320mg pro Tag.


Referenzen

  1. Endocrinology. 2004 Jul;145(7):3205-14. Epub 2004 Mar 19. Saw palmetto extract suppresses insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and induces stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in human prostate epithelial cells. Wadsworth TL, Carroll JM, Mallinson RA, Roberts CT Jr, Roselli CE.
  2. J Urol. 2004 Jan;171(1):284-8. A prospective, 1-year trial using saw palmetto versus finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Kaplan SA, Volpe MA, Te AE.
  3. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):185-205. A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Rowland DL, Tai W.
  4. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Mar 15;67(6):1281-3. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders. Gordon AE, Shaughnessy AF.
  5. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Dec;74(6):536-42. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Devane CL, Taylor RM, Ruan Y, Wang JS, Chavin KD.
  6. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Aug;250(1-2):21-6. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats. Talpur N, Echard B, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Preuss HG.
  7. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001 Sep;54(9):935-44. Risk factors for clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia in a community-based population of healthy aging men. Meigs JB, Mohr B, Barry MJ, Collins MM, McKinlay JB.
  8. Br J Urol. 1994 Oct;74(4):476-8. Steroid abuse in athletes, prostatic enlargement and bladder outflow obstruction--is there a relationship? Wemyss-Holden SA, Hamdy FC, Hastie KJ.
  9. BJU Int. 2004 Apr;93(6):751-6. Updated meta-analysis of clinical trials of Serenoa repens extract in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Boyle P, Robertson C, Lowe F, Roehrborn C.
  10. Urologiia. 2002 Jan-Feb;(1):23-5. [Five-year experience in treating patients with prostatic hyperplasia patients with permixone (Serenoa repens "Pierre Fabre Medicament)] [Article in Russian]. Aliaev IuG, Vinarov AZ, Lokshin KL, Spivak LG.
  11. BJU Int. 2003 Aug;92(3):267-70. Serenoa repens extract for benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized controlled trial. Willetts KE, Clements MS, Champion S, Ehsman S, Eden JA.
  12. Urology. 2003 Sep;62(3 Suppl 1):6-14. Lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia: fast control of the patient's quality of life. Djavan B.
  13. Prog Urol. 2002 Jun;12(3):384-92; discussion 394-4. [Comparison of a phytotherapeutic agent (Permixon) with an alpha-blocker (Tamsulosin) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a 1-year randomized international study] [Article in French]. Debruyne F, Koch G, Boyle P, Da Silva FC, Gillenwater JG, Hamdy FC, Perrin P, Teillac P, Vela-Navarrete R, Raynaud JP; Groupe d'etude PERMAL.
  14. Eur Urol. 2004 Jun;45(6):773-9; disucssion 779-80. Evaluation of the clinical benefit of permixon and tamsulosin in severe BPH patients-PERMAL study subset analysis. Debruyne F, Boyle P, Calais Da Silva F, Gillenwater JG, Hamdy FC, Perrin P, Teillac P, Vela-Navarrete R, Raynaud JP, Schulman CC.
  15. World J Urol. 2002 Nov;20(5):285-93. Epub 2002 Oct 17. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract. Yarnell E.
  16. Prostate. 2000 Apr 1;43(1):49-58. Pharmacological effects of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on rat prostate hyperplasia induced by hyperprolactinemia: comparison with finasteride. Van Coppenolle F, Le Bourhis X, Carpentier F, Delaby G, Cousse H, Raynaud JP, Dupouy JP, Prevarskaya N.
  17. Prostate. 1999 Sep 1;40(4):232-41. Serenoa repens (Permixon): a 5alpha-reductase types I and II inhibitor-new evidence in a coculture model of BPH. Bayne CW, Donnelly F, Ross M, Habib FK.
  18. Urology. 2002 Dec;60(6 Suppl):35-7; discussion 37. Phytotherapy in chronic prostatitis. Shoskes DA.
  19. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Apr;8(2):143-52. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Prager N, Bickett K, French N, Marcovici G.
  20. J Urol. 2000 Sep;164(3 Pt 1):876-81. The selectivity and specificity of the actions of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the prostate. Bayne CW, Ross M, Donnelly F, Habib FK.
  21. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1997 Jan-Mar;22(1):73-83. Distribution study of radioactivity in rats after oral administration of the lipido/sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) supplemented with [1-14C]-lauric acid, [1-14C]-oleic acid or [4-14C]-beta-sitosterol. Chevalier G, Benard P, Cousse H, Bengone T.
  22. Prostate. 1998 Oct 1;37(2):77-83. Effects of long-term treatment with Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the concentrations and regional distribution of androgens and epidermal growth factor in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Di Silverio F, Monti S, Sciarra A, Varasano PA, Martini C, Lanzara S, D'Eramo G, Di Nicola S, Toscano V.
  23. Urologiia. 2004 Mar-Apr;(2):3-7. [In Process Citation] [Article in Russian]. [No authors listed]. PMID: 15114742
  24. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Dec;8(6):813-21. Flavonoid and botanical approaches to prostate health. Katz AE.
  25. Prostate. 2001 Feb 15;46(3):226-32. Do saw palmetto extracts block human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in vivo? Goepel M, Dinh L, Mitchell A, Schafers RF, Rubben H, Michel MC.
  26. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 Oct;82(2-3):233-9. Inhibition of type 1 and type 2 5alpha-reductase activity by free fatty acids, active ingredients of Permixon. Raynaud JP, Cousse H, Martin PM.
  27. Prostate. 2001 Apr;47(1):59-65. Myristoleic acid, a cytotoxic component in the extract from Serenoa repens, induces apoptosis and necrosis in human prostatic LNCaP cells. Iguchi K, Okumura N, Usui S, Sajiki H, Hirota K, Hirano K.
  28. Prostate. 1999 Feb 15;38(3):208-15. Saw palmetto extracts potently and noncompetitively inhibit human alpha1-adrenoceptors in vitro. Goepel M, Hecker U, Krege S, Rubben H, Michel MC.
  29. Adv Ther. 1999 Sep-Oct;16(5):231-41. Efficacy and tolerability of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) in benign prostatic hyperplasia: a double-blind comparison of two dosage regimens. Stepanov VN, Siniakova LA, Sarrazin B, Raynaud JP.
  30. J Urol. 2002 Jul;168(1):150-4; discussion 154. Analytical accuracy and reliability of commonly used nutritional supplements in prostate disease. Feifer AH, Fleshner NE, Klotz L.

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